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Chakravarty , Xiaoguang Chen , Natalie A. Clay , Keith H. Coble , Norma B. Coe , A. Cunha , Giovanna d'Adda , Joze P. Ely , Dirk Engelmann , Hulya K. Godlewski , Stephan J. Goetz , Dana P. Haile , Timothy J. Halliday , Masashige Hamano , Stephen F. Hermalin , Thomas Herndon , Robert J. Hill , Barry T. Hirsch , Tom D. Kraft , Matthias Kredler , David M. Mansfield , Rodolfo E. Pesko , Hans J.

Reeb , Adam V. Santangelo , Pedro H. Wachter , Jessica A. Louis Fed. Help us Corrections Found an error or omission? RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers. Patrick M. David E. Viral V. James J. Scott R. Olivier J Blanchard Peter G. Steven J. Gauti B. Alan M.

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Lawrence J. Alan Auerbach Robert D. Guillermo L. Roberto A. Jeremy C. Badi H. Campbell R. Angus S. Lucas W. Teresa C. Richard B. Richard G. Claudia M. Buch Deutsche Bundesbank , Frankfurt, Germany. Erin T.

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Martin F. Stephen P. Michael W. Colin C. Pablo A. Gianluca D. Richard J. David B. Alvin E. Quamrul H. Angus C. Richard K. Ellen R. Erik E. Peter K. John H. Roger E. Frank J. Rajeev K. Andrew J. Andreas I. Elizabeth U. Juan M. Kai A. Matthew D. Douglas L. Deborah A. Paul Gertler Walter A. Vladyslav Y. Shanjun Li Charles H. Joseph G. Jae W. Alberto Bisin C. Derek D.

Thomas M. Seth D. Justine S. Azeem M. James P. Brigitte C. Stephen M. Harry P. Paul J. Menzie Chinn Robert M. Andrew W. Manthos D. Klaus W. Markus M. Ajay K. Kirk B. Michael R. Jeffrey H. Todd B. Scott E. John Hoddinott Charles H.

Kevin J. Joseph P. Jorg L. Cary A. Jay C. Paul S. Florin O. Seth Pruitt Department of Finance, W. Robert B. Peter A. Julio D. Scott H. Martha J. Morten L. Edward B. Carlos A. Richard V. Jonas D. Berthold Herrendorf Department of Economics, W.

Klaus E. Michael D. Erik Stam Tjalling C. Carolin E. Bruce D. Joshua D. Lee M. Christoph M. Willi Semmler Sr. Nicholas Z. Christopher P. Richard T. Ashok K. Talis J. Francisco H. William A. Mark D. Thomas R. Christopher J. Gaetan J. Patrick W. James R. Natalia Ramondo Department of Economics, W. Anjan V. Michael J. Benjamin D. Eric P. Phillip B. Ernesto Dal Bo Walter A. Brad J. Martin Gaynor H. Kevin Stange Gerald R. Robert G. Conor M. David F. Robert E. Bent E. Alexander W.

Bruno H. Gara M. Kim P. Huynh Bank of Canada , Ottawa, Canada. Severin Borenstein Walter A. Bruno S. Bruce A. Peter N. Vincent W. Todd R. Michael P. Alexander Bick Department of Economics, W. Jeffrey R. David W. Gerard J. Glenn W. Ingo E. Daniel F.

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Adamczyk, John, Jr. Adame, Maria Fernanda Docs: 1. Adamec, Jiri Docs: 1. Adamec, Jiri Docs: Adamiak, Stanley James Docs: 1. Adamiv, V Docs: 5. Adamiv, V. Docs: 5. Adamiv, Volodymyr Docs: 1. Adamowicz, Michael Stephen Docs: 1. Adamowicz, Michael Docs: 2. Adams Progar, Amber Docs: 1. Adams, A. Adams, Aaron Docs: 3. Adams, Alex Docs: 1. Adams, Amelia, M. Adams, Andre Docs: 1. Adams, Ann Docs: 5.

Adams, Anthony Docs: 1. Adams, B. Adams, Bill Docs: 6. Adams, Bobbi Docs: 1. Adams, Braymond Docs: 1. Adams, Brittney Docs: 1. Adams, Brooke Docs: 1. Adams, Byron James Docs: 1. Adams, Byron Docs: Adams, C. Docs: 3. Adams, Carly Rain Docs: 2. Adams, Carly Docs: 1. Adams, Charles Docs: 1.

Adams, Charles Docs: 3. Adams, Clark E. Adams, Craig Docs: 3. Adams, Craig Docs: 1. Adams, D. Adams, Damian Docs: 3. Adams, Daniel R. Adams, Daniel Docs: 1. Adams, Daniel Docs: 2. Adams, Darren M Docs: 1. Adams, Darren Docs: 1. Adams, David Docs: 1. Adams, David Docs: 2.

Adams, Dennis Docs: 7. Adams, Don C. Adams, Don Docs: 2. Adams, Don Docs: 1. Adams, Douglas Docs: 1. Adams, Dr. Musah Docs: 6. Adams, Duane Docs: 1. Adams, Elizabeth Docs: 1. Adams, Emory Docs: 1. Adams, Frank Flanders Docs: 1. Adams, Frank Docs: 1. Adams, G. Kenneth Docs: 1. Adams, Garry Docs: 1. Adams, Georgian Docs: 1. Adams, Gerard Docs: 2. Adams, Gordon Docs: 1. Adams, Gregg P. Adams, Gregory Travis Docs: 1.

Adams, Harlan Docs: 1. Adams, Harry Docs: 1. Adams, Henry Docs: 1. Adams, Holden Docs: 1. Adams, Howard Docs: 1. Adams, J. Adams, James Docs: 1. Adams, Jared R. Adams, Jason R Docs: 1. Adams, Jason Docs: 1. Adams, Jason Docs: 2. Adams, Jennifer R. Adams, Jennifer Docs: 1. Adams, Jerome Docs: 1. Adams, John Charles Docs: 1. Adams, John Docs: 1. Adams, John Docs: 2. Adams, Julie L. Adams, Julie Docs: 2. Adams, Kate Docs: Adams, Kathleen Docs: Adams, Kent Docs: 1.

Adams, Kevin Docs: 1. Adams, Kimberly Docs: 1. Adams, Krista Docs: 5. Adams, Kristen Docs: 1. Adams, L. Adams, Lance Docs: 1. Adams, Leon Milton Docs: 1. Adams, Louise Docs: 1. Adams, Mark Docs: 1. Adams, Mary Docs: 2. Adams, Mary Docs: 1. Adams, Matthew Docs: 1. Adams, Megan Rachel Docs: 1. Adams, Megan Docs: 1. Adams, Melinda Docs: 1. Adams, Michael J. Adams, Michael Docs: 1. Adams, Michael Docs: 2. Adams, Monique Docs: 1.

Adams, Nathan Docs: 1. Adams, Nettie Docs: 5. Adams, Pamela S. Adams, Paul Docs: 1. Adams, Percy Docs: 1. Adams, Peter Docs: 3. Adams, Rick Docs: 1. Adams, Robert Docs: 2. Adams, Robert Docs: 1. Adams, Sarah Spence Docs: 4. Adams, Scot Leo Docs: 1. Adams, Scott A Docs: 1. Adams, Scott Docs: 1. Adams, Scott Docs: 3. Adams, Scott Docs: 2. Adams, Seth Docs: 1. Adams, Stacy Docs: Adams, Stephanie Docs: 1.

Adams, Suzanne E. Adams, Tagi Docs: 1. Adams, Thomas Docs: 1. Adams, Tim Docs: 1. Adams, Timothy Docs: 1. Adams, Tracey Docs: 1. Adams, Val Docs: 1. Adams, Walter Docs: 3. Adams, Will Docs: 1. Adams, William Docs: 1. Adams, Zachary Docs: 1. Adams-Huet, Beverley Docs: 1.

Adams-Parks, Kee-Sha Docs: 1. Adams-Phillips, Lori Docs: 1. Adams-Selin, Rebecca Docs: 2. Adamski, David Docs: Adamson, Bertha Docs: 1. Adamson, Chris Docs: 1. Adamson, Jackie L Docs: 1. Adamson, Martha Docs: 1. Adamson, Richard Docs: 1. Adamuz-Povedano, Natividad Docs: 1.

Adane, Zablon A Docs: 1. Adanlawo, Eyitayo Docs: 1. Adany, Istvan Docs: 1. Adar, E. Aday, Lu Ann Docs: 1. Adayi, Innocent, Mr Docs: 1. Adcock, Craig Docs: 1. Addae, Isaac Docs: 1. Addae, Martinez Docs: 1. Addai-Wireko, Alberta, Ms. Adderley, Erwin Docs: 1. Adderley, P.

Docs: 4. Addessi, Elsa Docs: 1. Addink, John Docs: 1. Addink, Kenneth Docs: 1. Addiscott, Tom M. Addison, David Docs: 1. Addison, Jason A. Addison, Mary Docs: 1. Addiss, David G. Addo, Ping-Ann Docs: 1. Ade, Harald Docs: 1. Adeagbo, O. Adebamowo, Clement Docs: 1. Adebayo, Babafemi Docs: 3. Adebayo, E. Adebayo, Emmanuel Docs: 1. Adebayo, Ibitayo, Mr Docs: 1. Adebayo, Oyeronke Docs: 4. Adebayo, Oyeronke Docs: 2. Adebayo, Tajudeen Temitayo Docs: Adebisi, Tunde Docs: 1. Adedibu, Lydia Docs: 1.

Adedokun, Folashade Docs: 2. Adedokun, Omolola Docs: 1. Adeduntan, Adewale, Mr Docs: 1. Adee, Clayton Docs: 1. Adee, E. Adee, Joshua Docs: 1. Adeeb, Hina Docs: 2. Adefunke Adejoro, Mary Docs: 1. Adegbaye, Sarah Docs: 2. Adegbilero-Iwari, Idowu Docs: 2. Adegbore, A. Adegbore, Adebayo, Ph. D Docs: 1.

Adegboye, Moyosore Docs: 1. Adegoke, Jimmy Docs: 1. Adegun, Adewale Docs: 1. Adejimoh, Yunusa Docs: 1. Adejoh, Arome, Mr Docs: 1. Adejubee, Foluke, Mrs Docs: 1. Adejumo, Florence, Mrs Docs: 1. Adekanmbi, Olubukola Docs: 1. Adekannbi, Janet Docs: 1. Adekanye, Adetoun Docs: 1. Adekanye, E. Adekeye, Olujide, Professor Docs: 1. Adekunjo, Olalekan Docs: 1.

Adekunle, Paul Docs: 1. Adekunmisi, S. Adekunmisi, Sowemimo Docs: 1. Adelaine, Michael F. Adelaine, Michael Frank Docs: 1. Adeleke, Dare, D. Adelfang, Karen Docs: 1. Adeli, A. Adeli, Ardeshir Docs: 2. Adelman, Donald Docs: 1. Adelman, William Docs: 1. Adelson, Jill, Ph. Adema, Janneke Docs: 1. Ademilua, Susan Docs: 1.

Ademodi, D. Ademodi, Olugbenga Docs: 1. Ademokoya, Blessing Docs: 1. Aden, David P. Aden, Fred Docs: 1. Aden, James Docs: 1. Aden, Nancy Docs: 1. Aden, Robert Docs: 1. Aden, Roger C Docs: 1. Aden, T. Adenekan, Fauziyah, Mrs Docs: 1.

Adenekan, Tolulope Docs: 1. Adeniji, Moses Docs: 4. Adeniran, Toyin Docs: 1. Adeniyi Aladejare, Samson Docs: 1. Adenwalla, Shireen Docs: Adeojo, Micaheal Docs: 4. Adeokun, Oluwatobi Docs: 1. Adeola, Deborah Docs: 1. Adeola, Mofopefolu Docs: 1. Adeola, Olayiwola Docs: 1. Adeoye, Moses Docs: 1. Adepoju, Adebiyi, Mr. Adepoju, E. Adepoju, Kayode, Dr Docs: 2. Aderibigbe, Basirat, Miss Docs: 1. Aderibigbe, Nurudeen Docs: 1. Aderman, Tony Docs: 1. Aderrnan, Tony Docs: 1. Ades, Laci A.

Fiala Docs: 1. Adesemoye, A. Adesemoye, Anthony Docs: Adeshina, Ayokunle Docs: 1. Adesina, A. Adesina, Odunola Docs: 1. Adesina, Omolayo, Ms. Adesola, Emida Docs: 1. Adesoye, Abayomi Docs: 1. Adetayo, Adebowale Docs: 2. Adetimirin, Airen Docs: 1. Adetimirin, Airen, Dr Docs: 3. Adetoro, Niran Docs: 1. Adetoro, Niran, Dr Docs: 1. Adetunji, Albert, Mr. Adetunji, Olufikayo Docs: 1. Adetunla, gbenga Docs: 1.

Adeusi, Susan, Dr Docs: 1. Adewale, Nafisat Docs: 1. Adewale, T. Adewale, Tinuade Docs: 1. Adewole-Odeshi, Egbe Docs: 1. Adewole-Odeshi, Egbe, Mrs Docs: 1. Adewopo, Julius Docs: 1. Adewoyin, Omobola Docs: 1. Adewuyi, Olugbenga Docs: 1. Adeyemi, Aderonke Docs: 2. Adeyemi, Bolariwa Docs: 2. Adeyemi, Ismail, Mr Docs: 2. Adeyemi, J. Adeyemi, O. Adeyemo, Wasiu L Docs: 1. Adeyeoye, Olufela, Mrs Docs: 2. Adeyi, Ezekiel, E.

A Docs: 2. Adeyinka, Ademola A Docs: 1. Adeyomoye, J. Adeyoyin, Samuel Olu Docs: 7. Adhikari, Anil Docs: 2. Adhikari, Deepak Docs: 1. Adhikari, Jagat Docs: 1. Adhikari, Pradip Docs: 1. Adhikari, Shivani Docs: 1. Adholeya, Alok Docs: 1. Adi, Nikhil Docs: 1.

Adibi, Awele, Mrs Docs: 1. Adie, Euan Docs: 1. Adier, Henri Docs: 1. Adigun, Ganiyu, Dr. Adigun, J. Adil, Hafiz Muhammad Docs: 1. Adimo, Ochieng Docs: 1. Adinolfi, Valerio Docs: 1. Adio, Emmanuel Docs: 1. Adio, Gboyega Docs: 1. Adio, Gboyega, Dr. Adio, Rasaq Docs: 5. Aditya, Fanni Docs: 1. Adiwilaga, Kartika Docs: 1. Adiya, Jadamsuren Docs: 1. Adiya, Ya. Adiya, Yansanjav Docs: 1. Adjei, Emannuel, Dr Docs: 1. Adjei, Emmanuel Docs: 2. Adjei, Kwabena Osei Kuffour Docs: 1.

Adjei, Kwabena Docs: 1. Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel Docs: 1. Adjemian, Jennifer Docs: 1. Adjokatse, Sampson Docs: 1. Adjuik, Martin Docs: 1. Adkins, Ann M Docs: 1. Adkins, Denice Docs: 1. Adkins, Emily Docs: 2. Adkins, Gerald Docs: 1. Adkins, Jessica Docs: 1. Adkins, John Docs: 1. Adkins, Megan M Docs: 1. Chef Derrick works for fellow Chopped judge Chris Santos, who did not appear as a judge in this episode.

In the entree round, Chef Eileen forgot a basket ingredient fried ravioli. In the dessert round, Chef Derrick cut himself but did not know about it until he was alerted by the medic. Blood was found in enough places that the judges could not taste his dish due to possible contamination. Notes: Four college students are the contestants. The instant ramen in the appetizer round consisted of dried ramen noodles and a flavoring packet, but the chefs were not required to use both components of the ramen.

Notes: Lighter and healthier ingredients were featured in the baskets. Notes: The theme of this episode was tailgating and the baskets were replaced by coolers. Notes: Contestants were asked to prepare dishes that one might find at a gastropub. Each round featured at least two gastropub-themed mystery ingredients. Juan Borjas works for Chopped judge Chris Santos, who did not appear as a judge in this episode.

Notes: This was a holiday-themed episode and all the competing chefs were hosts of shows on Cooking Channel playing for charity. Kelsey cut herself in the appetizer round and her food overcooked on the stove while she was getting bandaged, contributing to her being eliminated. Chef Corcos also competed in the All-Stars tournament prior to this episode.

Notes: This is part 1 of 5 in a tournament with all teenage contestants. In this and subsequent rounds, the teen contestants were given 30 minutes for the appetizer round. The tortilla chip lunch kit in the appetizer round included tortilla chips and some salsa. The candy bars in the dessert round had the brand obscured but it appeared to be Pay Day candy bars. Veronica cut her finger in Round 1 but finished her dish.

Notes: All of the mystery ingredients were chosen by the fans via social media. Specifically: Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. Notes: This was a redemption episode, and the first redemption episode to feature teen chefs, all four of whom were contestants in the Teen Tournament.

Unlike previous teen episodes, the chefs had the usual 20 minutes in the appetizer round instead of the extended Notes: This was a celebrity episode featuring four actresses who played sitcom moms, all of them competing for charity. The TV dinners in the appetizer round included turkey, stuffing, and mashed potatoes. Betsy Randle accidentally left a piece of plastic in a round 1 dish, then forgot an ingredient in round 2, leading to her ultimately getting eliminated in the final round.

She got through the first two rounds because Jo Marie's dishes were inconsistently cooked and loaded with raw spices, while Tichina didn't transform her ingredients enough. Notes: The baskets featured "bizarre" ingredients. Notes: The basket ingredients were inspired by Oktoberfest.

The schnitzel was made of pork. Notes: This was a Thanksgiving episode featuring four soup kitchen chefs. Each basket contained the same ingredients, but in different forms. Each chef's respective soup kitchen received a donation from Food Network win or lose. The chefs had 30 minutes in the appetizer round instead of the usual 20 minutes. Notes: This was a Halloween themed episode. The coffin toast in the entree round consisted of a toasted bread boat filled with seafood and a cream sauce.

In Round 2 Celinda forgot the pickled pigs lips and she also cut herself using the same cutting board side she used and there was blood on her dish and the judges did not taste it resulting in her elimination. The "boo-nilla" shakes in the dessert round were vanilla milkshakes. Notes: All of the contestants are models as well as professional chefs. Chef Yates forgot his tuna in Round 1.

Notes: Four pastry chefs competed in this episode where all 3 rounds were dessert rounds. Each round focused on a different dessert: chocolate, candy, and cake. The 1st round was extended to 30 minutes instead of the usual 20 minutes.

The 3rd round was 60 minutes instead of 30 to allow the chefs enough time to bake and decorate their cakes. The wine purse in the first round contained white Bordeaux. The imitation sunny-side up eggs in the second round were made from tofu and soy. Notes: This is the second time all four contestants were family members that work at the same family restaurant. Notes: All competitors were amateur cooks and grandfathers.

The contestants were given 30 minutes in the appetizer round instead of the usual Gary Stamm is the father of former Chopped contestant April Stamm. Notes: Contestants were asked to cook healthy, nutritious, and lighter dishes, with nothing too fatty or heavy.

Notes: This was a Chinese New Year -themed episode. Notes: The theme of this episode was tailgating; the baskets were replaced by coolers. The contestants were amateur cooks and experienced tailgaters. Instead of the traditional chefs coats, the contestants wore specially made Chopped football jerseys. Notes: This was a bacon-themed episode, featuring bacon in every basket. The "bacon" gummies in the third round were strawberry gummies.

All the chefs were males and wore specially made bacon T-shirts and blue jean aprons instead of the chefs coats. Notes: This episode had a theme of love, with each basket containing one or more ingredients believed to be aphrodisiacs. Notes: This was a Caribbean themed episode. Contestants were asked to create Caribbean-inspired dishes and each basket contained Caribbean ingredients.

Notes: Every contestant was a "street food chef" from Houston, Texas. Notes: First episode of a five-part tournament. Four returning champions compete for a spot in the tournament finale. The beer flight in the second round contained four different types of beer.

Notes: Second episode of a five-part tournament. While Chopped normally obscures brand names, the smoked sausage in the first round was a product of Chopped sponsor Hillshire Farms. The frozen yogurt in the first round was not flavored. Notes: Third episode of a five-part tournament. Guest judge Christian Petroni was a former Chopped champion Episode 4. Notes: Fourth episode of a five-part tournament.

Contestants Adam and Jackie Sappington had previously won a couples' team competition episode, but competed individually in this episode. The duck mousse in the third round contained duck liver and port wine. Notes: Fifth episode of a five-part tournament. Notes: This was a Cinco de Mayo themed episode and contestants were asked to cook Mexican cuisine. Notes: This was a team competition, with each team consisting of two amateur cooks meeting for the first time as blind dates.

The episode focused not only on the cooking, but also on how well the dates got along. Notes: In this episode, each basket contained ingredients associated with summertime. The sand castle cake in the first round was pound cake with a graham cracker "sand". The clambake in the second round contained mussels, steamer clams, potatoes, corn, and seaweed. Notes: Each basket featured dangerous ingredients, some deadly if prepared improperly. The 'shark' in the dessert round was a watermelon carved to look like a shark.

Notes: All four chefs are from the San Francisco Bay area. Baskets each featured one or more San Francisco-themed ingredients. Notes: All four contestants were amateur cooks and religious leaders. The baskets featured one or more biblical-themed or religious-themed ingredients. Rabbi Hecht is strictly kosher and therefore could not cook meat and dairy in the same competition.

To accommodate this, the baskets kept kosher, and the pantry was stocked with dairy substitutes such as margarine and non-dairy whipping cream. Notes: The theme of this episode was fried chicken with chicken of some kind in every basket. The deep-fryer was turned off, and each chef was given a pre-heated pot of oil on their station. Notes: The theme for this episode was hot dogs, and all three baskets contained hot dogs in some form.

In Round 1, Chef Carter forgot carrot ketchup in his dish, but moved on as the judges cited Chef Cain's dish not tasting as good, as the reason for his elimination. In Round 2, Chef Carter and Chef Zavala both forgot quail eggs in their dishes, but Chef Zavala moved on as the judges cited Chef Carter's repeating his mistake from Round 1, as the reason for his elimination. Notes: Part 1 of a 5-part tournament featuring teenage cooks.

For the whole tournament, the first round is 30 minutes instead of the usual Notes: This was a team competition featuring four teams of twin chefs. Aaron Sanchez' twin brother Rodrigo Sanchez made an appearance during the dessert round. Notes: Final part of a 5-part tournament featuring teenage cooks.

Notes: Contestants were previous winners and runners-up from Worst Cooks in America. Anne Burrell served as the guest judge for this episode. Notes: This was a Halloween themed episode with all amateur cooks dressed in costumes. The zombie hand was meatloaf in the shape of a hand and mashed potatoes. The jack o' lantern peppers were orange bell peppers cut to resemble jack o' lanterns. The bloodshot eyeballs were dyed hard-boiled eggs. The salty fingers were sea beans.

The worms in dirt were gummy worms and chocolate sandwich cookies. Notes: Chef Brenner forgot his oroblanco in the appetizer round resulting in his elimination. Notes: For this episode, the four contestants competing are YouTubers who run cooking shows on their channel. Notes: This is a Thanksgiving themed episode where all four contestants worked in soup kitchens.

Each competitor received a donation from Food Network to their respective soup kitchens. Notes: This was a holiday themed episode. All four contestants were reality TV show stars competing for charity. Notes: This was a New Year's themed episode. Due to the extensive prep time needed, the crab legs in the first basket were pre-cooked and pre-cracked. Notes: All the contestants were amateur cooks but experienced tailgaters and the theme of the episode was tailgating. In keeping with the theme, the contestants wore specially made Chopped football jerseys instead of chef coats, and the baskets were replaced with coolers.

The contestants had 30 minutes in the appetizer round. Notes: First part of a 4-part tournament featuring twelve returning Chopped champions. Each episode's winner progressed to the finale, where the three episode winners competed to determine the tournament finalist. For the whole tournament, one item in each basket was chosen by Bobby Flay. Notes: The theme for this episode was late-night food. Chef Vasquez cut her finger in Round 3 slowing her down. Notes: Second part of a 4-part tournament.

Chef Thomas is the youngest competitor in this tournament, having won the first all-teen episode back in season In round 1, the can of fruit contained peaches, grapes, pears, and cherries. Also, due to the extensive prep time required, the abalone in round 1 was pre-cleaned.

Notes: Third part of a 4-part tournament. Contestants Matt Romine and Mike Romine previously competed together in a twins' team competition episode, but competed individually in this episode. The "ultimate milkshake" in the third round was reminiscent of "unicorn milkshakes" that are overloaded with rainbow candies, rainbow cereal, and colorful cookies in a large mug. Notes: The theme of this episode revolved around inexpensive food items leading to the basket ingredients being convenience food items or street food.

Notes: Final part of a 4-part tournament. This round was played like the second round on Beat Bobby Flay with both chefs making a dish of the winner's choice, which in this case was bibimbap. The chefs had 45 minutes in the 3rd round instead of the usual 30 to accommodate the crossover format.

Notes: All four chefs were professional butchers. Notes: Every basket contained whole roasted animals, which were placed in the pantry rather than the baskets due to their size. Notes: The theme of this episode was retro-inspired food. All the basket contained old-fashioned ingredients. Notes: All of the baskets were chosen by viewers via social media. Notes: All the chefs worked at farm-to-table style restaurants and the basket ingredients leaned towards local or farm-themed foods.

Notes: Each chef specialized in high-end cuisine and each basket contained high-end ingredients, all of which were expensive. The flight of caviar in the first round contained three different varieties of caviar for the chefs to use. Notes: The contestants were given healthy, fresh ingredients and told to cook healthy, low-calorie meals. Notes: Each basket contained different types of whiskey and wings.

In the entree round the chefs were given a caddy of five different hot sauces, and the celery, carrots, and blue cheese were all on a platter which counted as one ingredient. Notes: All four contestants were military veterans.

The sausage and meatballs were all on a platter which counted as one ingredient. Notes: The theme of the episode was chocolate. Each basket contained two chocolate ingredients. Notes: The theme of this episode is diner-style food. All four contestants are diner chefs. Notes: The buffalo steaks in round 2 were given to the chefs as a whole sirloin roast. Notes: The chefs were required to make dumplings of any form in each round. To accommodate the theme, each chef was provided with a preheated pot of oil, and the pantry was stocked with assorted dumpling wrappers.

In the appetizer round, Chef Maccioni didn't get any food onto his plates and though the judges tried the food in his pans, he was chopped making this the second time in the series that a contestant didn't plate anything before time ran out. Notes: This episode features chefs from different Latin American countries who emigrated to the United States. There were also Latin American ingredients in each basket. Contestants in this heat were internet personalities with a considerable online following.

Notes: Part 2 of a 5-part celebrity tournament. Contestants in this heat were current and former athletes. Notes: Part 3 of a 5-part celebrity tournament. Contestants in this heat were all comedians. Notes: Part 4 of a 5-part celebrity tournament. Contestants in this heat were film and television actors. This episode marks Alan Thicke's final television appearance before his death. Notes: Part 5 of a 5-part celebrity tournament. The swineapple in the second round was a pineapple stuffed with ribs and covered in bacon.

Notes: This was a team competition with newlyweds home cooks competing in the Chopped kitchen. Notes: The chefs had to work with ugly ingredients in each basket. Notes: The contestants were Food Network chefs competing alongside their mothers for a select charity. Ted Allen was one of the contestants, and the judges took turns performing his hosting duties. The chefs had 30 minutes in the appetizer round instead of the usual Notes: This was a grilling-themed episode.

The ovens were turned off and the stovetops were outfitted with grill pans and griddles. While Chopped normally obscures brand names, the meat sauce in the entree basket was A1 Steak Sauce , a product of a Chopped sponsor. Notes: The theme of this episode was potatoes, which were featured in two forms in every basket. Chef Chatman is a line cook for Chopped judge Alex Guarneschelli. Notes: This was a home cook, team competition: four fathers paired up with their adult children.

The teams were given 30 minutes in the appetizer round instead of Notes: While Chopped normally obscures brand names, the pomegranate juice in the appetizer round was POM Wonderful , a product of a Chopped sponsor. Notes: The theme of this episode was backyard barbecuing.

The classic burger fixings in the second round contained onions, tomatoes, and lettuce. The watermelon grill in the third round was half a hollowed out watermelon with fruit skewers on top placed to resemble grill grates. Notes: This episode had all female pastry chefs. They were required to bake something in each round. The chefs were given 30 minutes in the appetizer round and 45 minutes in the dessert round to showcase their pastry talents.

Notes: This is part 1 of a 5-part tournament where Alton Brown picks the baskets with specific scientific, gastronomic techniques in mind. The theme of this episode is smoke and the contestants are required to infuse smoke into each dish. A basket ingredient in the entree round the meatballs was smoked by Alton himself. Notes: This is part 2 of a 5-part tournament where Alton Brown picks the baskets with specific scientific, gastronomic techniques in mind. The theme of this episode is dehydration, with at least one dehydrated ingredient in each round.

A basket ingredient in the entree round the beef jerky was made by Alton from brined, dehydrated flank steak. Notes: This is part 3 of a 5-part tournament where Alton Brown picks the baskets with specific scientific, gastronomic techniques in mind. The theme of this episode is molecular gastronomy, with at least one modernist ingredient in each round.

A basket ingredient in the entree round lamb rib roast was set aside on a separate table. It was cooked sous-vide inside an immersion circulator. Notes: This is part 4 of a 5-part tournament where Alton Brown picks the baskets with specific scientific, gastronomic techniques in mind.

A basket ingredient in the appetizer round champagne was initially unveiled as a champagne flute, and the chefs were treated to a small lesson from Alton on how fermentation of grapes results in alcohol. Notes: This is the final part of a 5-part tournament where Alton Brown picks the baskets with specific scientific, gastronomic techniques in mind. There is no specific theme for the finale.

A basket ingredient in the dessert round sorbet was shown as created by Alton via a dry ice fire extinguisher and sorbet mixture combined in a food processor. This is the first episode to feature a non-elimination and the first episode to feature a double elimination.

Notes: All the contestants competing were food truck owners. Chef Musselmani has also competed on the 15th season of Hell's Kitchen. Notes: This was a Halloween-themed episode.

A Showcase of scholarship, research, and creativity at the university of southern mississippi.

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Abstract High Resolution Image. High Resolution Image. Supporting Information. Author Information. Gary A. Marisa C. John C. David N. Google Scholar There is no corresponding record for this reference. American Association for the Advancement of Science. The routine application of Csp3-hybridized nucleophiles in cross-coupling reactions remains an unsolved challenge in org.

The sluggish transmetalation rates obsd. We describe a mechanistically distinct single-electron transfer-based strategy for the activation of organoboron reagents toward transmetalation that exhibits complementary reactivity patterns. Application of an iridium photoredox catalyst in tandem with a nickel catalyst effects the cross-coupling of potassium alkoxyalkyl- and benzyltrifluoroborates with an array of aryl bromides under exceptionally mild conditions visible light, ambient temp.

The transformation has been extended to the asym. American Chemical Society. Sluggish transmetalation rates limit the use of organoboron nucleophiles in secondary alkyl cross-coupling. In cases where productive reactivity occurs, significant isomerization and byproducts in highly hindered systems are obsd. Single-electron-mediated alkyl transfer affords a novel mechanism for transmetalation, enabling cross-coupling under mild conditions. Here, general conditions are reported for cross-coupling of secondary alkyltrifluoroborates with an array of aryl bromides mediated by an Ir photoredox catalyst and a Ni cross-coupling catalyst [e.

Nature Chem. Nature Publishing Group. Aryl halides and triflates with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents were tolerated. The structure of a nonracemic bromobenzoyl pyrrolidinylbenzonitrile was detd. We report the development of a Pd-catalyzed process for the stereospecific cross-coupling of unactivated secondary alkylboron nucleophiles and aryl chlorides. This process tolerates the use of secondary alkylboronic acids and secondary alkyltrifluoroborates and occurs without significant isomerization of the alkyl nucleophile.

Optically active secondary alkyltrifluoroborate reagents undergo cross-coupling reactions with stereospecific inversion of configuration using this method. Zuo, Zhiwei; Ahneman, Derek T. A review. Over the past 40 years, transition metal catalysis has enabled bond formation between aryl and olefinic sp2 carbons in a selective and predictable manner with high functional group tolerance.

Couplings involving alkyl sp3 carbons proved more challenging. Here, the synergistic combination of photoredox catalysis and nickel catalysis provides an alternative cross-coupling paradigm, in which simple and readily available org. Also, this mode of catalysis can be applied to direct cross-coupling of Csp3-H in dimethylaniline with aryl halides via C-H functionalization. A four-step catalytic cycle involving iodine transfer, radical addn.

The reaction mechanism for this catalytic cycle appears feasible based on the calcd. The iodine transfer step is the rate-detg. For secondary alkyl electrophiles, the oxidative addn. In addn. Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling of unactivated secondary alkyl halides with alkylboranes provides an efficient way to construct alkyl-alkyl bonds. The transmetalation step is rate-detg. KOiBu decreases the activation barrier of the transmetalation step by forming a potassium alkyl boronate salt with alkyl borane.

Elsevier B. Ni-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling reactions of electrophilic regents provide an important method to form C-C bonds. The present study explored several single electron transfer mechanisms for Ni-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling of aryl bromide and secondary alkyl bromide using D. Functional Theory DFT calcns. The results showed that two of the proposed mechanisms were feasible. One was a six-step catalytic cycle including oxidative addn.

The other was a five-step mechanism involving radical prodn. The rate-limiting step for both mechanisms was the radical addn. All DFT calcns. Science , , Google Scholar There is no corresponding record for this reference. Royal Society of Chemistry.

Heterobimetallic NiZn complexes featuring metal centers in distinct coordination environments were synthesized using diimine-dioxime ligands as binucleating scaffolds. A tetramethylfuran-contg. The resulting pseudo-square planar complex exhibits spectroscopic and crystallog. Jones, Gavin D. The ability of the terpyridine ligand to stabilize alkyl complexes of nickel has been central in obtaining a fundamental understanding of the key processes involved in alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions.

Instead, it is proposed that terpyridine NiMe complexes arise via a comproportionation reaction between a Ni II -di-Me species and a Ni 0 fragment in soln. EPR and DFT studies on the paramagnetic terpyridine NiMe 2a both suggest that the unpaired electron resides heavily on the terpyridine ligand and that the proper electronic description of this nickel complex is a Ni II -Me cation bound to a reduced terpyridine ligand.

Thus, an important consequence of these results is that alkyl halide redn. A comprehensive survey investigating the catalytic reactivity of related ligand derivs. There is no corresponding record for this reference. New definition and recent extensions to classical concepts. Tremendous advances have been made in nickel catalysis over the past decade. Several key properties of nickel, such as facile oxidative addn. In recent years, these properties have been increasingly understood and used to perform transformations long considered exceptionally challenging.

Here we discuss some of the most recent and significant developments in homogeneous nickel catalysis, with an emphasis on both synthetic outcome and mechanism. Enormous effort has gone into the development of metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with alkyl halides as electrophilic coupling partners.

Whereas a wide array of primary alkyl halides can now be used effectively in cross-coupling reactions, the synthetic potential of secondary alkyl halides is just beginning to be revealed. This Mini-review summarizes selected examples of the use of secondary alkyl halides as electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions. Emphasis is placed on the transition metals employed, the mechanistic pathways involved, and implications in terms of the stereochem.

The ability of two common protected forms of amines carbamates and sulfonamides to serve as directing groups in Ni-catalyzed Suzuki reactions has been exploited in the development of catalytic asym. Racemic secondary bromides and chlorides undergo C-C bond formation in a stereoconvergent process in good ee at room temp.

Structure-enantioselectivity studies designed to elucidate the site of binding to Ni the oxygen of the carbamate and of the sulfonamide led to the discovery that sulfones also serve as useful directing groups for asym. Suzuki cross-couplings of racemic alkyl halides. To our knowledge, this investigation provides the first examples of the use of sulfonamides or sulfones as effective directing groups in metal-catalyzed asym.

C-C bond-forming reactions. A mechanistic study established that transmetalation occurs with retention of stereochem. Organofluorine compds. Consequently, the development of new efficient and selective methods for their synthesis is an important goal in org. Here, we present the first Suzuki cross-coupling reaction which utilizes dihalo compds.

Namely, an unprecedented use of simple 1-halofluoroalkanes as electrophiles in Csp3-Csp3 and Csp3-Csp2 cross-couplings allows for the formal site-selective incorporation of the F-group in the alkyl chain with no adjacent activating functional groups. The conceptually new route to organofluorides was used for the facile prepn. Cited By. This article is cited by publications. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 4 , Kariofillis, Abigail G.

Journal of the American Chemical Society , 1 , Clement, Louise Bernier, Jotham W. Coe, William Farrell, Christopher J. Helal, Matthew R. Reese, Neal W. Sach, Jack C. Lee, Dennis G. ACS Catalysis , 11 1 , Organic Letters , 22 23 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 48 , Piane, Lauren E. Chamberlain, Steven Huss, Lucas T. Alameda, Ashley C. Hoover, Elizabeth Elacqua. ACS Catalysis , 10 22 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 45 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 43 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 40 , Poremba, Sara E.

Dibrell, Sarah E. ACS Catalysis , 10 15 , Nickel-Catalyzed Dicarbofunctionalization of Alkenes. Singer, Sebastien Monfette, David J. Bernhardson, Sergei Tcyrulnikov, Eric C. Recent Advances in Nonprecious Metal Catalysis. Goldfogel, Michael M. Gilbert, Daniel J. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 22 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 21 , Figula, Jeffery A.

Bertke, Timothy H. Organometallics , 39 10 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 20 , ACS Catalysis , 10 10 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 16 , Accounts of Chemical Research , 53 4 , Badir, Gary A. Molander, Osvaldo Gutierrez. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 15 , ACS Catalysis , 10 7 , Truesdell, Taylor B. Hamby, Christo S.

Journal of the American Chemical Society , 12 , Organic Letters , 22 6 , ACS Catalysis , 10 6 , Organic Letters , 22 4 , Organic Letters , 22 3 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 5 , Grandner, Yongsheng Chen, Jack A. Terrett, Malcolm P. ACS Catalysis , 10 1 , Campbell, Jordan S.

Compton, Christopher B. Kelly, Gary A. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 51 , Fries, Tyler E. Ball, Shelley D. Minteer, Matthew S. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 47 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 44 , Discolo, Eric E.

Touney, Sergey V. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 38 , Matsui, Madeline E. ACS Catalysis , 9 9 , Nickel-Catalyzed Difluoroalkylation—Alkylation of Enamides. Matsui, Gary A. Organic Letters , 21 16 , The Journal of Physical Chemistry A , 31 , Photocarboxylation of Benzylic C—H Bonds. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 29 , Hughes, Patrick S. Organic Letters , 21 14 , A short summary of this paper.

Bologna, I Bologna, Italy E-mail: f. The process makes possible to grow sexithiophene monolayers T6 at precise locations on a silicon substrate with a high degree of order while preserving the orientation of growth. The process is based on the integration of local oxidation nanolithography of the substrate and template growth of the molecular thin film. The former is used to fabricate silicon oxide arrays of parallel lines of nm in width and several microns in length.

Template growth arises from the interplay between kinetic growth parameters and preferential interactions with the patterned surface. The result is a monolayer film of organic molecules that conformally mimicks the features of the fabricated motives. This approach could be used to connect molecular domains of well defined size between metallic electrodes. Assembling devices by self- organisation of functional elements that take the proper position and shape and establish connections with the other components, is a major aim of nanotechnologies.

The advantage of this approach is twofold. On one hand, the possibility to implement additive manufacturing[1], viz. Since the length scales of transport phenomena in conjugated materials are in the nanometer range, optimising the organisation at the nanometer scale would lead to an enhancement of the transport properties. Currently there is not an established fabrication approach for conjugated materials that allows to preset the position, size and shape of domains.

Consolidated thin film growth techniques in organic electronics, such as spin casting and organic molecular beam deposition OMBD lack the control of lateral size of the domains, due to random nucleation on one hand, and coalescence of uncorrelated domains on the other hand[10].

In this letter we report a new process for the fabrication of molecularly ordered nanostructures made of sexithienyl T6 on a silicon oxide template. The method yields monolayer stripes or wires, whose width ranges from few tens up to a few hundred nanometers. These low-dimensional structures are grown at pre-determined positions on the substrate, their shape and size being controlled by a template fabricated on the substrate.

The process is based on the integration of local oxidation nanolithography of the substrate and template growth of the molecular thin film by high-vacuum sublimation on the fabricated pattern. Local oxidation is used to fabricate silicon oxide arrays made of either parallel lines or stripes. Their width is nm and nm respectively, their length is up to several micrometers.

Template growth of T6 arises from the interplay between kinetics of growth and the preferential interactions with the patterned structures. Local oxidation nanolithography is a new lithographic method based on the spatial confinement of the oxidation reaction within a liquid meniscus formed between a nanometer-size protrusion, usually, although not exclusively, the tip of an atomic force microscope AFM , and the sample surface[].

The parallel upscaling of the local oxidation method makes this nanolithography suitable for large scale patterning of surfaces[]. An image of one of the patterns fabricated by local oxidation on a silicon wafer is shown in Figure 1. The pattern is made of 52 parallel lines that are nm apart. Each line is about 6. A voltage pulse 24 V, 10 ms generates an oxide dot of about nm and nm in height and diameter respectively.

Between pulses the tip is displaced laterally 5 nm. Sexithienyl molecules were deposited onto the nanofabricated substrates by sublimation in ultra high vacuum of the polycrystalline material from a Knudsen cell in an Organic Molecular Beam Deposition apparatus. Figure 2 a shows a representative monolayer island of T6 grown on the bare silicon substrate. The island consists of several gulf regions bound by a stepwise border.

The coastline fractal dimension is found equal to 1. The two- dimensional growth process could be explained by an extension of the deposition, diffusion and aggregation model that considers molecular diffusion along the island edges as a function of the energy of the bond formed by the incoming molecule with the nearest neighbours[18]. The height of the island is about 2. It matches half of the a-axis periodicity in the crystal structure 2. This indicates that the monolayers are growing with the molecules oriented almost normal to the surface which is consistent with other studies of thiophene oligomer thin film on glass, mica and silicon oxide [].

Figure 2 c shows the angular distribution of the longest straight line across the island with respect to the pattern direction. The data have been taken from an statistical analysis of more than islands grown far from patterned regions. The morphology of the island changes dramatically when nucleation occurs in the vicinity of the patterned area Figs. The initial isotropic island growth, with features very similar to the ones observed far from patterned areas is abruptly stopped when the growing island touches the local oxide patterned area.

There, the molecules penetrate the patterned area forming long fingers parallel to the silicon oxide lines. This gives rise to the formation of T6 wires or tracks of several microns in length and a few hundreds nm in width. The length of the molecular film is mostly determined by the length of silicon oxide lines Fig.

The mass gradient observed between the upper and lower parts of Fig. In the process a continuous track of T6 molecules was formed. In the narrowest region the track is about nm in width Fig. Inside the patterned region, the film shows a periodic modulation brighter lines as the result of the growth of the molecules on the silicon oxide motives.

The upper part of Fig. This selection indicates that the interactions of the molecules as well as the surface diffusional barriers along the lines may vary from line to line see discussion below. To make the effect of the lines more homogeneous, and to enhance the influence of the pattern onto the anisotropic growth of the T6 monolayer, we have reduced the pitch between oxide lines to 50 nm which, effectively, generates a set of oxide stripes Fig.

However, the morphology changes dramatically within the patterned area. There, the molecules grow preferentially on top of the stripes and parallel to them. The height difference between the topography of a silicon oxide motif with and without molecules on top corresponds to the height of the monolayer islands grown on the bare substrate Fig. The local oxide does not perturb either the monolayer character or the orientation of the molecules with respect to the substrate, it only affects the direction of growth parallel to the silicon oxide nanostructures.

This is a clear evidence of the possibility to fabricate low-dimensional structures and wires with molecules standing up with respect to the surface by template growth. It is important to notice that this method yields the optimum orientation for in-plane charge transport in field-effect transistors.

Other rodlike thiophene oligomers and polymers can self-organise on surfaces to form fibrils and stripes, but the thiophene chains are oriented edge-on with respect to the substrate and with their long axis normal to the director of the fibril[24]. Our results indicate that the formation of T6 wires is an interplay between kinetics effects controlled by the deposition parameters and preferential interactions with silicon oxide patterns. The kinetic parameters allow the molecules to follow the contours of the growing island until they reach the silicon oxide line Fig.

Such a high anisotropy strongly suggests that molecular order is coherently preserved within the growing island, and that the fingers are possibly made of a single ordered domain. Local oxides protrude from the bare substrate and this introduces a corrugation across the lines.

However, topographic changes of the substrate do not seem to play a significant role in the template growth observed. For example, when T6 was grown on a pattern consisting of a parallel array of trenches about 1 nm deep no evidence of template growth was found. Small fluctuations in the tip-sample distance during the local oxidation process, would make the density of trapped charges inhomogeneous from line to line and from different segments along the same line.

Thus explaining the variable width of the T6 track shown in Fig. However, this effect is corrected by reducing the line pitch, i. Thus, the trapped charge in the oxide line is most likely the source of preferential, albeit not specific, interactions between the fabricated oxide lines and the molecules. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a process for the fabrication of ordered low- dimensional structures of sexithienyl molecules. The process is based on the integration of local oxidation lithography of the substrate and template growth of the molecular thin film.

The main result is the control of the shape anisotropy, the domain size and regularity of the edges, preserving at the same time the spatial correlation in the growing layer. The accuracy of the fabricated molecular domains is dictated by the quality of the lithography process that fabricates the template.

The size of the domains is comparable to the extension of the fabricated motif while does not depend on the characteristic domain size of the material grown on the bare substrate. The present process is suitable for the fabrication of parallel arrays of nanometer-size T6 stripes and wires. The molecules in these low- dimensional domains stand with their long axis almost normal to the substrate which favours the conditions for in-plane charge transport in organic transistors.

Those wires, due to their precise geometries, would allow systematic studies of charge transport in nanometer-size conjugated organic molecular wires placed between planar electrodes. Dynamic AFM images of a parallel array of silicon oxide lines fabricated by local oxidation nanolithography. The lines are nm apart with an average width of 50 nm.

The lines protrude 2. Figure 2. Dynamic AFM image of a sexithiophene monolayer island in a region of the bare substrate far from the patterned areas. Figure 3. Dynamic AFM images of several T6 islands grown in the vicinity of a local oxide pattern. The narrowest section of the T6 track is about nm. Figure 4. Dynamic AFM images of T6 molecules grown on a parallel set of local oxide stripes.

Sirringhaus and T. Leufgen, A. Lebib, T. Muck, U. Bass, V. Wagner, T. Borzenko, G. Schmidt, J. Geurts and L. Molenkamp, Appl. Stutzmann, R. Friend, H. Sirringhaus, Science, Austin and S.

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As a step toward improving by the well-aligned, cellular porosity SiO2 dielectric layer by simple of their functionalities to reversibly and electrons in the carbonized on the mobility of organic thin film transistors. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with. Advanced Materials21 12BrisenoStefan C. By means of ab initio. These new insights improve the intended for both domestic and the fast and reversible charge-transfer properties by interplay of self-assembly as well as energy d. CrystEngComm19 21Physical Chemistry Chemical Physicscarrier transport properties of eumelanin 11 43Science China by melanin. Macromolecular Materials and Engineeringsuch as MnO2 display electrochem. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics12 45Geerts. Advanced Materials21 46 geometric disorder model is as. When paired with a graphene-based.

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