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An unfortunate limitation of all deployed PoW blockchain systems is that the time between blocks has high variance. This variance impedes the consistent flow of validated The synergic role of sociotechnical and personal characteristics on work injuries in mines. Occupational injuries in mines are attributed to many factors. In this study, an attempt was made to identify the various factors related to work injuries in mines and to estimate their effects on work injuries to mine workers. The input data for the model were the correlation matrix of 18 variables, which were collected from the case study mines.
Amongst the latent endogenous constructs, job dissatisfaction and safe work behaviour show a significant positive and negative direct relationship with work injury, respectively. However, the construct safety environment has a significant negative indirect relationship with work injury. The safety environment is negatively affected by work hazards and positively affected by social support.
The safety environment also shows a significant negative relationship with job stress and job dissatisfaction. However, negative personality has no significant direct or indirect effect on work injury, but it has a significant negative relationship with safe work behaviour.
The endogenous construct negative personality is positively influenced by job stress and negatively influenced by social support. Although research studies are important for social work students, the students rarely like research classes or see their value. Students used data mining , that is,…. Full Text Available The environmentally friendly technology for filling the vertical mine workings with autoclaved slag-concrete, prefabricated on the surface of the mine is presented in the article; the optimal parameters of filling technology are proposed.
The developed technology for filling the abandoned vertical mine workings allows ensuring the environmental safety of the territories adjacent to the abandoned mine , utilizing slag dumps and providing the possibility of shaft recovery, if necessary, with minimal labor and material costs.
Mathematical modeling of methane migration into the mine workings during the face downtime. For the estimation of safe distances during explosions of mixtures of coal dust, methane, and air in the process of emergency rescue operations in coal mines , it is necessary to determine the gas volumes in the mine workings. Errors in determining such volumes often lead to tragic consequences. The calculation schemes are suggested that allow the methane generation rate into the mine air to be determined on the basis of physical regularities mine and gas pressures, gas permeability dynamics, depth of the gas drainage zone, etc.
The following methane emission sources are considered at the site: the surface of the stopped face; walls of development opening; the gob potential volume of the gas reservoir in the caving area. Test calculations of methane generation have been performed based on the mining , geological and technological data of one of the mines in Baydaevsky geological and economic region.
In general, the results obtained are consistent with the data of long-term empirical observations. The directions of further research aimed at improving the synthesized methodology are presented. Peterson, D. The report presents the results of a series of in-depth discussions with leading mining industry representatives selected for their prominent position and their ability to think broadly about technology trends.
The discussions highlighted the importance of collaborative technology research, development, and implementation strategies and the increasingly critical role of mine personnel in the utilization of new technologies. An evaluation of a coal mining company's return to work program.
This study consolidates and evaluates information and data obtained from a coal mining company's return to work program called the Work Therapy Program. Organizational information and economic and statistical data were available for the study based on the company's records. Analysis of the data included descriptive statistics such as total injuries, the frequency rate of injuries, total days away from work due to injury, average days away per employee, and severity rates.
A cost-benefit analysis was conducted to determine if the Program was economically beneficial to the company. Data from an opinion survey of the management at the mine where the Program was first instituted was used to determine the perceptions of mine management with respect to the Work Therapy Program. Conclusions were that the Work Therapy Program was economically beneficial to the Company and that the Program resulted in a significant reduction in compensable injuries.
The Program did not significantly reduce days away from work due to mine injury. Perceptions of mine management were mostly positive. With operations designed to rehabilitate uranium mining operations terminated in late running for ten years now, significant progress is evident at all sites of Wismut GmbH. Of the total of DM 13 billion earmarked by the federal authorities in for the implementation of this exceptionally large environmental restoration project, about DM 6.
Safe shutdown of underground mine workings remains an essential remediation task at all former mining sites. Following international standard practices, the preferred option retained called for flooding of the underground workings , i. The flow properties of colliery spoil rockpaste as used in the infilling of abandoned mine workings. Colliery spoil is the major constituent of colliery spoil 'rockpaste' which has been used to infill abandoned limestone mines in the West Midlands of England since the early s.
The other constituents of rockpaste are pulverised fuel ash, lime and water. A key property of the rockpaste is its ability to flow within the mine workings over considerable distances before setting. This paper describes the work carried out to identify suitable sites as sources of colliery spoil for making rockpaste and goes on to consider the flow properties of the material and the monitoring methods used on-site. As well as describing the methods used for monitoring the movement of rockpaste material, a description is also given of a dip-meter developed specifically for the purpose of measuring the level of paste in the mine.
The monitoring systems developed for use in the two case studies presented in this paper are now being used extensively for infilling other abandoned mine workings. Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day.
The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually.
Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews. Paste backfill of shallow mine workings for land reclamation in Canmore, Alberta. The coal mining history in Canmore, Alberta was presented along with reclamation activities that mine regulators carried out following closure of the mines after nearly years of underground mining.
The 7 seams that were mined commercially extend over distances of a few hundred feet and have been displaced by faults. Voids and collapsed rubble in shallow underground workings pose a risk of potential ground subsidence that can affect the stability of surface structures and infrastructure, including the planned development of the proposed Three Sisters Mountain Village on land above the abandoned mines. The village includes plans for 10, residential homes, 2 golf courses, and a resource centre.
A mine works mitigation program involved drilling primary injection boreholes on a 15 m grid pattern to map the constraint zones in order to gain a better perspective of the subsidence issues as well as the effects of subsidence on structural stress and public safety. When determining mitigation criteria, various land uses and ranges of subsidence hazards were considered to be compatible with each land use. A paste backfill composed of aggregate from a locally available till overburden site was mixed with cement and injected into the void spaces.
This paper described the cemented paste backfill injection method; confirmatory methods; maximum volume and pressure criteria; survey for ground uplift; and borehole camera and manual checks for cemented paste backfill in adjacent boreholes. Quality control testing was carried out by means of slump tests.
It was concluded that cemented paste backfill mix could be used successfully to stabilize abandoned mine workings for land recovery. Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the possibilities of the three-dimensional representation of geological strata in underground access workings in a hard coal deposit in the SW part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, using CAD software and its flagship program AutoCAD.
The criteria for choosing these workings were based on their length and the complexity of geological settings observed while they were driven. The described method may be applied in spatial visualization of geological structures observed in other deposits, mines and existing workings it is not applicable for designing mine workings , also beyond the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin USCB.
The method presented describes the problem of the visualization of underground mine workings in a typical geological aspect, considering aimed at detailed visualization of geological settings revealed on the side walls of workings cutting the deposit.
Predictors of work injury in underground mines - an application of a logistic regression model. Mine accidents and injuries are complex and generally characterized by several factors starting from personal to technical, and technical to social characteristics. In this study, an attempt has been made to identify the various factors responsible for work related injuries in mines and to estimate the risk of work injury to mine workers.
The prediction of work injury in mines was done by a step-by-step multivariate logistic regression modeling with an application to case study mines in India. In total, 18 variables were considered in this study. Most of the variables are not directly quantifiable. Instruments were developed to quantify them through a questionnaire type survey.
Underground mine workers were randomly selected for the survey. Responses from participants were used for the analysis. Four variables, age, negative affectivity, job dissatisfaction, and physical hazards bear significant discriminating power for risk of injury to the workers, comparing between cases and controls in a multivariate situation while controlling all the personal and socio-technical variables.
The analysis reveals that negatively affected workers are 2. Long term planning through identification of the negative individuals, proper counseling regarding the adverse effects of negative behaviors and special training is urgently required. Care should be taken for the aged and experienced workers in terms of their job responsibility and training requirements. Management should provide a friendly atmosphere during work to increase the confidence of the injury prone miners.
Protecting and supporting mine workings by artificial supports. A method for strata control in inclined thin coal seams using concrete pillars is evaluated. A coal seam from 0. The direct roof consisted of shales and the main roof of sandstones and shales. The floor was prone to heave.
The pillars were made of waste rocks and concretes. Rocks were covered by a system of timber liners. Concrete was grouted by perforated pipes. Timber liners were sealed by gunite to prevent concrete leaks. Comparative evaluations show that use of concrete pillars guaranteed efficient strata control.
Roof subsidence ranged from to mm in comparison to roof subsidence from to mm when cribbings had been used. Concrete pillar dimensions and distribution are shown in two schemes. Use of waste rocks as aggregate reduced cost of strata control and reduced weight of rocks hauled to the ground surface. For stowing, types and sulfate-resistant cement, calcium chloride hardening agent , sand and water were used.
Concrete samples were tested under laboratory conditions. In Russian. Interfacial layers play a critical role in building up the Ohmic contact between electrodes and functional layers in organic photovoltaic OPV solar cells. These layers are based on either inorganic oxides ZnO and TiO 2 or water-soluble organic polymers such as poly[ 9,9-dioctyl-2,7-fluorene -alt- 9,9-bis 3'- N,N-dimethylamino propyl -2,7-fluorene ] and polyethylenimine ethoxylated PEIE.
In this work , we have developed a series of novel poly ionic liquid nonconjugated block copolymers for improving the performance of inverted OPV cells by using them as work function modifiers of the indium tin oxide ITO cathode. Four nonconjugated polyelectrolytes n-CPEs based on polystyrene and imidazolium poly ionic liquid PSImCl were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The ionic density, which controls the work function of the electrode by forming an interfacial dipole between the electrode and the block copolymers, was easily tuned by simply changing the PSImCl molar ratio.
Bio- mining for biomarkers with a multi-resolution block chain. Databases, Data Mining KDD, DM approach seeks to merge the fields having a shared data origin - biomarkers revealed through stimulus response. Full Text Available Comprehensive testing blastings on ihe development faces in the areas with bursts have been performed in the coal mine of Labin. The obtained results prove d isti ne t relations in exp!
Chaoges depending on the brand of esplosive as well as those ones considering the advance of mining activitv have also been observed. It has been proved in the pro-duction process of the mine , that the results with increased work productivity are obtained in spite of the fact that miners are exposed to danger of rock bursts the paper is published in Croatian.
Identification of underground mine workings with the use of global positioning system technology. Canty, G. Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program. Identification of underground mine workings for well drilling is a difficult task given the limited resources available and lack of reliable information.
Relic mine maps of questionable accuracy and difficulty in correlating the subsurface to the surface, make the process of locating wells arduous. With the development of global positioning system GPS , specific locations on the earth can be identified with the aid of satellites.
This technology can be applied to mine workings identification given a few necessary, precursory details. For an abandoned mine treatment project conducted by the University of Oklahoma, in conjunction with the Oklahoma Conservation Commission, a Trimble ProXL 8 channel GPS receiver was employed to locate specific points on the surface with respect to a mine map. A mine map was digitized into AutoCAD version 13 software. Surface features identified on the map, such as mine adits, were located and marked in the field using the GPS receiver.
These features were than imported into AutoCAD and referenced with the same points drawn on the map. A rubber sheeting program, Multric, was used to tweak the points so the map features correlated with the surface points. The correlation of these features allowed the map to be geo-referenced with the surface. Specific drilling points were located on the digitized map and assigned a latitude and longitude.
The GPS receiver, using real time differential correction, was used to locate these points in the field. This method was assumed to be relatively accurate, to within 5 to 15 feet. We wish to extend our gratitude to Dr.
John Napier for the time he spent discussing and reviewing our work. Our thanks are also due Mr. Jeremy Maccelari of Visual The design and construction of the bottom working for in-situ leaching of fragmented uranium ore by blasting in No. Bottom working is a very important structure for in-situ leaching of fragmented uranium ore by blasting.
Its design and construction should simultaneously satisfy the requirements for receiving fragmented ore, transporting the ore, providing relief space for blast operation, passage for workers and fresh air for the slope and collecting the pregnant solution from spraying over the fragmented ore. The author deals with the design and construction of the complete water cutoff bottom working for collecting the pregnant solution for in-situ leaching of fragmented uranium ore by long hole blast in No.
The preparation system for the block , the undercutting, the construction process and method of the bottom working and the measures to guide the solution leaked into the surrounding rock mass to the bottom of the block are described in detail. Residual subsidence analysis after the end of coal mine work. Example from Lorraine Colliery, France. This paper describes the residual movements associated with the deep coal mines.
The studied case relates to works located into Lorraine coal basin. The paper is divided into two sections. The first one describes subsidence phenomena, especially the residual phase in terms of amplitude, duration and localization. The second one focus on Morsbach case: the total and residual subsidence measurements will be analyzed and compared to the state of the art as well as the currant knowledge. We analyze also the declarations of the mining damage during and after the mining period.
Damages occur, after this period are probably due to late observations. Methodology of simulation of underground working in metal mines. Application to a uranium deposit in Australia. For the Ben Lomond Northern Queensland Australia underground uranium mining project, studies were carried out to compare the feasibility of different mining methods according to their cost per ton and selectivity, i.
First, a geostatistical orebody model was built. The ore grade variability of this model results from the drillhole structural analysis. Working on two dimensional vertical cross sections, the usual hand drawing stope reserve estimate obtained with computer assisted design for each of the three different mining methods is compared with the results obtained with automatic algorithms allocated to the characteristics of each mining method.
These techniques lead to fully automatic of optimal economical stope design. Comparison is positive: automatic stopes designs are in agreement with hand made drawings, but they can be defined faster through interactive questionning of the computer, and the total maximum profit obtained is a least as high as the best profit found through hand designed projects [fr.
Basic results and prospects for development of physiology of work of miners of Donbass coal mines. In the Donbass, tunnelers and stopers work under unfavorable factors of the underground environment: heavy physical work in limited space, increased possibility of accidents and personal risk, a warming microclimate, noise and dust. In view of this, role of physiology of work consists in guaranteeing normalization of work load, in development of rational regiments of work and rest, and a basis of psychophysical criteria of professional choice, development of physiologically based methods of rehabilitation, preparation of miners for factors of underground medium.
Physiologic normalization of work of miners can be achieved by establishing norms of work and rest. With mechanization of mining , level of tension of work has increased, requiring longer rest periods after work. Investigations in physiology of work of miners have established norms of loads, national regimens of work and rest, ways to prevent disease and reduce physiologic tension of organism to prevent functional breakdowns and illnesses.
For the future, further study of mechanisms causing strain and exhaustion affecting work capacity of miners is recommended. Two producing basalt flows are numbered 4 and 5 in the lava stratigraphy. A total of seven basalt flows and one rhyodacite flow are present in the district. Above the rhyodacite flow, four basalt flows are Pitanga, high-Ti type including the two mineralized flows; only the topmost basalt in the stratigraphy is a Paranapanema, intermediate-Ti type. Each individual flow is uniquely identified from its geochemical and gamma-spectrometric properties.
The study of several sections in the district allowed for the identification of a fault- block structure. Blocks are elongated NW and the block on the west side of the fault was downthrown. How hard do mineworkers work? An assessment of workplace stress associated with routine mining activities. Full Text Available.
The PSI is based on core body temperature and heart rate An assessment of workplace stress as- sociated with routine mining activities P. Schutte CSIR Investigation of stress of man caused by work and climate in salt mining. To find out a relation between load caused by work and mine climate and the resulting stress of the employees under the conditions of the salt mining in Niedersachsen an underground field investigation was performed with mineworkers.
Besides the climatic elements dry-, wet-bulb temperature and air speed the heaviness of the work , the working sequence and the physiological magnitudes heart-beat rate and body temperature were included with respect to the physical efficiency of the patients. The transformation of energy which characterizes the heaviness of work for the single activities mainly lay in the range of light to moderate work.
Transgressions of the limiting value of the body temperature of 39 0 C did not occur. Apart from one exception a continuous increase of the heart-beat rate was not found. Increased stresses can be expected especially for blasting truck operators and repair works. Laboratory and simulation tests agree with the results of the present field investigation considering special limiting conditions. In salt mining Niedersachsen the application of the dry-bulb temperature as standard seems justified, as more other measures of climate, are not expected to yield more accurate data.
Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the percent of workers who commute to work using various modes, and the percent who work from home within each Census Block Group Assessing dynamics of ash content formation in coal at a working face in mines. Factors which influence ash content in coal mined at a working face are analyzed: ash content in coal, stability of rock layers surrounding a coal seam, mechanical and physical properties of the direct roof.
A mathematical model of ash content formation at a working face is described. On the basis of the model a computer program has been constructed. The program is used for calculating the mean value of ash content in coal and the standardized deviation. The program considers all causes of ash fluctuation in coal such as mining conditions, coal seam thickness, fluctuations in coal seam thickness, mechanical and physical properties of rocks surrounding a coal seam, particularly in the direct roof, mining systems, narrow or wide web shearer loaders, powered supports, hydraulic props, timber friction props with timber roof bars or with steel roof bars.
A classification of rocks considering roof stability used by the program is described. A scheme of the program is given. Examples of using the program for forecasting ash content in coal and ash content fluctuations in Donbass mines are evaluated. In the article the necessity of continuous control over the condition of the roof of mine workings is considered, to increase the safety in the conduct of mining operations.
Provided the rationale for monitoring in complex mining and geological conditions, as well as in areas prone to rock blows and sudden coal emissions. The existing methods for controlling the displacement of the roof rocks are described, and their shortcomings are given. An idea is given of an automated system for monitoring the displacement of the workings.
The stages of the system as a whole are considered, including the choice of a linear displacement sensor, a platform for software development, and a programming language. In order to ensure integration into other systems and subsequent analysis of the results, it is envisaged to output data to spreadsheets. Are shown the interfaces of the program and the output of the readings from the sensors to the monitors of the mining manager.
The use of vibration monitoring to record the blasting works impact on buildings surrounding open-pit mines. Full Text Available Environmental protection law and geological and mining law require the mineral mining plant to protect its surroundings from the effects of mining operations. This also applies to the negative impact of vibrations induced by blasting works on people and construction facilities.
Effective protection is only possible if the level of this impact is known, therefore it is necessary to record it. The thesis formulated in this way has been and continues to be the guiding principle of the research works carried out in the AGH Laboratory of Blasting Work and Environmental Protection.
As a result of these works are procedures for conducting preventive activities by open-pit mines in order to minimize the impact of blasting on facilities in the surrounding area. An important element of this activity is the monitoring of vibrations in constructions, which is a source of knowledge for excavation supervisors and engineers performing blasting works , thus contributing to raising the awareness of the responsible operation of the mining plant. Developed in the Laboratory of the Mine 's Vibration Monitoring Station KSMD, after several modernizations, it became a fully automated system for monitoring and recording the impact of blasting works on the surrounding environment.
Currently, there are 30 measuring devices in 10 open-pit mines , and additional 8 devices are used to provide periodic measurement and recording services for the mines concerned. Environmental protection law and geological and mining law require the mineral mining plant to protect its surroundings from the effects of mining operations.
Developed in the Laboratory of the Mine 's Vibration Monitoring Station KSMD , after several modernizations, it became a fully automated system for monitoring and recording the impact of blasting works on the surrounding environment. Characteristics of economic and mathematical simulation of development of working mines. Economic and mathematical simulation is promoted by a standard procedure of computations to optimize development of production for the future as the principal method of solution of a problem.
However traditional approaches to design of models need refinement which take into account the dynamic nature of a coal mine. First, the characteristics of the elements in subsystems change; second, as time passes the very structure of the system is transformed. Consequently, these processes should be reflected in the simulation in a corresponding manner. In practical terms this is expressed in the formation of files of forecast information used in computations according to a model and also in development of procedures of transformation of the model structure with a change of the structure of the subject mine with time.
Let us note that the invariability of the state of the principal elements of the technological scheme of a mine with time is the necessary condition of acceptability of a model of the evolution type which is most common. For working mines the freedom of selecting solutions is considerably less than the analogous one in design.
The decision has been brought to go on with investments into equipment for new growing-site locations in underground workings of the mine. In order to cultivate high-quality mushrooms, the ventilation of growing sites has been particularly considered. Compressive separate ventilation of growing fields has been applied using the main and the return ventilating pipeline, with the air current regulation according to the growing stage the paper is published in Croatian.
Multicriteria ranking of workplaces regarding working conditions in a mining company. Ranking of workplaces with respect to working conditions is very significant for each company. It indicates the positions where employees are most exposed to adverse effects resulting from the working environment, which endangers their health.
This article presents the results obtained for 12 different production workplaces in the copper mining and smelting complex RTB Bor - 'Veliki Krivelj' open pit, based on six parameters measured regularly which defined the following working environment conditions: air temperature, light, noise, dustiness, chemical hazards and vibrations.
The obtained results indicate that the most difficult workplace is on the excavation location excavator operator. This method can be successfully used for solving similar kinds of problems, in order to improve working conditions. Air blasts that may occur in a block caving mining operation represent a significant hazard for personnel as well as to mining infrastructure. Uncontrolled caving of a large volume of broken rock into a mine void causes compression of the air within, forcing it to flow at high velocities into connecting tunnels such as extraction points beneath the cave or observation points intersecting the cave.
This high velocity flow of air can cause injury to personnel and significant damage to equipment. In this presentation, we introduce a simulation engine for the air blast problem. LBM allows us to introduce an appropriate equation of state for the air that simulates compressibility as a function of the speed of sound. Validation examples are presented to justify the use of this tool for an air blasting situation.
A section view of one simulation is provided in Fig 1. An investigation into the risk of developing air pockets as a function of fragment size distribution is also conducted and described. The fragment size distribution can be assessed during mining and the risk of air pockets forming and consequently of air blast occurring can be deduced and mitigation measures put in place.
The effect of other key variables that can be determined from geotechnical investigations, such as fracture frequency, are also systematically explored. It is expected that the results of this study can elucidate key features of the air blasting phenomenon in order to formulate safer mining protocols. Galindo-Torres, S. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety outcomes within the iron ore mining environment.
Orientation: The study of work stressors, job insecurity and union support creates opportunity for iron ore mining organisations to manage job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour more effectively. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour of a sample of iron ore mine workers in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The minin Is outdoor work associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality?
In this cohort study, and using the same group of miners, we examined whether work in an outdoor environment could explain elevated cerebrovascular disease rates. Poisson regression models wer Mechanization of operations in underground workings in coal mines and research project trends. Structure of black coal reserves of Poland, imported and Polish made equipment for underground mining , prospects for mechanization of selected operations in underground mines and research programs of the KOMAG Center for Mechanization of Mining are evaluated.
Prospects for longwall mining with caving or stowing in thick coal seams slice mining , thin 0. The following equipment for mechanization of underground mining is evaluated: integrated face systems, shearer loaders, chain conveyors, belt conveyors, coal plows, equipment for mine drivage, hoists, drive systems for mining equipment. The following research programs of the KOMAG Center are reviewed: modernization of face systems for coal seams with uncomplicated mining conditions, development of equipment for thin seam mining , development of types of mining equipment for coal seams from 1.
Job crafting and its impact on work engagement and job satisfaction in mining and manufacturing. Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate job crafting and its relationship with work engagement and job satisfaction within the South African context. This research is important as job crafting has been shown to have a positive influence on employee motivation. The results of multi-group structural equation modelling showed that the original four-factor structure of the job crafting scale was supported by the data, but that a three-factor structure was necessary due to a discriminant validity concern regarding two job crafting dimensions.
Regression results revealed that increasing structural job resources with challenging job demands, and increasing social job resources were significant predictors of work engagement in both groups. Contrary to expectations decreasing hindering job demands was a negative predictor of job satisfaction in the mining group. Furthermore, increasing social job resources was also a significant predictor of job satisfaction in both groups.
This study indicates the importance of job crafting for work engagement and job satisfaction in organisations. Underground coal mining technology - the future. Discusses development of underground coal mining in Australia in the last four decades. Development of gate roadways will require novel solutions with continuous cutting, loading and bolting. Information technology, with the concept of 'transparent mine ', will form the backbone of decision making.
The relationship between uranium in blood and the number of working years in the Syrian phosphate mines. Since phosphate contains uranium, workers in phosphate mines may be expected to be exposed to radioactive elements from this source. Uranium is concentrated in three main areas in the body: bone, liver and kidney. The author chose three carriers of uranium, blood, urine and hair to study the relationship between uranium concentration and the number of working years spent in the mine.
Uranium was measured in samples from workers and their families by fluorimetry. The quenching effect of blood, urine and heir on uranium standards was determined. The results show that uranium concentrations in blood increase with the number of working year in the mine.
In addition, it has also been determined that uranium concentrations in blood samples of families living near the mine are higher than those in families living in Damascus city. Finally, it has been found that hair is not a good biological indicator for this type of study. Blood plasma levels of interleukin-6 IL-6 and interleukin IL were measured in 45 miners working in a deep coal mine immediately after work shift using an immunoenzyme technique.
The highest IL-6 level was recorded in those miners engaged in hard work under most adverse conditions of underground workings --it was found to exceed the control values. The same group of workers demonstrated the lowest level of IL that differed from the control value. Miners aged between 41 to 50 years working in a coal mine , their underground service duration 16 to 20 years, displayed a decline in the level of IL The coal mine miners with the to year service duration revealed an increase in the level of IL Social responsibility of public accountant in carrying out his work in mining activity.
Full Text Available The accounting professional in recent times, as a major player, has been questioned in the performance of his work and even frequently involved with corporate financial scandals, putting into question the social responsibility of his profession. However, here, the analysis of the accounting profession is directed specifically to watch the behavior of the accountant in a particular sector such as mining , mainly in relation to the advise in the exploitation of coal.
This paper presents the results of the investigation on public accountants who provide advisory services to entrepreneurs in the mining sector. It inquires also on issues related to the level and quality of the advice that they provide in different topics such as economic, administrative , tax, labor , social and environmental issues in relation to the development of the activity. Similarly the accountant has an ethical commitment to both organizations and the different groups that are linked directly or indirectly to maintain balance in organizations through the provision of information to related parties on their rights that correspond to them in the development of the activity, and as an administrator and manager of information in decision-making contributes to the generation of the common welfare.
Finally, the social responsibility of the public accountant goes beyond the commitment to the State and the organizations in which they work , because there is a commitment to other stakeholders including the environment and society. Radiohygienic aspects of the remediation works of the former uranium mine in Hungary. A national project was initiated to remediate the site of the Hungarian uranium mine closed in The radiation levels on the mining and milling area were in the range between the background level and up to 10 to times the background level.
The most important phases of the remediation work investigated to assess the radiation burden of the workers and of the population living around the area to be recultivated are: transportation of mill tailings, covering of piles of refuse ores and mill tailings by soil, dismounting of the ore processing unit.
The environmental radiation protection levels for the remediation processes are the following: radon flux from the surface of the restored tailings ponds 0. Based on the model assessments the exposure route of external dose was identified as the main source of the radiation dose for the workers and the population as well.
The main conclusions concerning the occupational and environmental radiation protection are: the remediation work should be considered as a radiation practice, the use of the restored area by the population needs limited restrictions only. Radioecological surveillance around an old mining and milling site during environmental remediation works.
The main site of historic uranium mining and milling in Portugal, near the town of Canas de Senhorim, contains around 2. Approval of an environmental remediation plan for this area was followed by the start of engineering works , including the transportation of milling waste to the main milling pile and re shaping and contouring the waste heap to put a cap layer. These works were mostly performed in and During part of this period monitoring of radioactivity, including radon, was performed in the surface air, surface waters from the area, including the monitoring of the small river that receives drainage from the mill tailings area, and agriculture products.
This paper presents the results of measurements of the main alpha emitting radionuclides of uranium series and compares them with previous data from the region. Implications for the radiological protection of the population are discussed. For many years electronic devices have been available that are compact enough to utilise for personal gamma radiation monitoring.
Canberra Dosicards are being used as part of a program that replaced the use of monthly issued Thermoluminescent Dosimeter TLD badges with quarterly issue for some work groups. Two types of Polimaster gamma watches have also been introduced to specific work groups to assist with the determination of sites that may require remedial controls for their level of gamma radiation.
To date, both programs have been successfully implemented into the radiation monitoring program for the underground operation and have provided dramatic improvements for the control and determination of sources of gamma radiation in the underground environment.
To evaluate the stability of the AS, a uniaxial compression failure experiment was conducted with large and small-scale specimens. The distribution characteristics of the shear stress were obtained from a numerical simulation. Based on the failure characteristics and the variation of the shear stress, a failure criterion was determined and implemented in the strengthening method for the artificial side.
In an experimental test, the distribution pattern of the maximum shear stress showed an X shape, which contributed to the failure shape of the specimen. The shear stress distribution and failure shape are induced by a combination of two sets of shear stresses, which implies that failure of the AS follows the twin shear strength theory.
The use of anchor bolts, bolts, and anchor bars enhances the shear strength of the artificial side. When this side is stable, the components can constrain the lateral deformation as well as improve the internal friction angle and cohesion. When the AS is damaged, the components prevent the sliding of broken blocks along the shear failure plane and improve the residual strength of the artificial side.
When reinforced with an anchor bar, the AS is still stable even after mining operations for three years. Whereas historically, mining philosophies have reflected a shift to increasing larger mechanized systems [such as the continuous miner CM ], specific mining operations that do not benefit from the economy of the large mining equipment are often ignored or addressed with significant inefficiencies.
Developing this prototype concept will create a new class of equipment that can provide opportunities to re-think the very structure of the mining system across a broad range of possibilities, not able to be met by existing machinery.
The approach involved pooling the collective input from mining professionals, using a structured listing of desired inputs in the form of a questionnaire, which was used to define the range of desired design specifications.
From these inputs, a conceptual specification was blended, by the author, to embody the general concurrence of mission concepts for this machine. Rational technological parameters of dimension stone blocks production are taken into account. Arsenic exposure levels in relation to different working departments in a copper mining and smelting plant.
The investigation was carried out to evaluate arsenic exposure and the urine metabolite profiles of workers with different working departments, including administration Group1 , copper ore mining Group2 , copper ore grinding Group3 , electrolytic procession Group4 and copper smelting Group5 in a Copper mining and processing plant in China. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic arsenic iAs , monomethylarsonic acid MMA , dimethylarsinic acid DMA in urine were determined.
The urinary total As TAs levels of The results of the present study indicate that workers in copper production plant indeed exposed to As, especially for smelters and workers of electrolytic process. Supporting of mine workings and design of support systems. Madenlerde tahkimat isleri ve tasarmi. This article deals with elements of elasticity in rocks and examines the engineering properties of rocks. It includes stress distributions around mine openings and deformations of mine openings.
Strata control concept in coal mining is explained. Support systems in stone drifts, gateways, shafts and longwalls are discussed; timber supports, steel arches, articulated arches, roof bolting, concrete supports, supports on mechanized faces are detailed.
Emphasis is placed upon engineering properties of materials of support systems. The design concepts of mine support systems are described. The objects of the design are expressed with several numerical examples. It concludes with stowing: pneumatic stowing, and hydraulic stowing in metal and coal mining. Application for trackless mining technique in Benxi uranium mine.
The author narrates the circumstances achieving constructional target in Benxi Uranium Mine under relying on advance of science and technology and adopting small trackless mining equipment, presents the application of trackless mining equipment at mining small mine and complex mineral deposit and discusses the unique superiority of trackless mining technique in development work , mining preparation work and backstoping.
Investigation of the role of personal factors on work injury in underground mines using structural equation modeling. Work injuries in mines are complex and generally characterized by several factors starting from personal to technical and technical to social characteristics.
Six variables namely, rebelliousness, negative affectivity, job boredom, job dissatisfaction and work injury were considered in this study. Instruments were developed to quantify them through a questionnaire survey. Underground mine work -ers were randomly selected for the survey. The case study results show that negative affectivity and job boredom induce more job dissatisfaction to the workers whereas risk taking attitude of the individual is positively influenced by job dissatisfaction as well as by rebelliousness characteristics of the individual.
Finally, risk taking and job dissatisfaction are having positive significant direct relationship with work injury. The findings of this study clearly reveal that rebelliousness, negative affectivity and job boredom are the three key personal factors influencing work related injuries in mines that need to be addressed properly through effective safety programs.
Data were compiled from the Full Text Available Sustainable development represents an optimistic scenario for the evolution of contemporary civilization. The object of this paper is to define certain evaluation criteria regarding the performances of water discharge networks from mining works , and propose a method for aggregating the specific indicators for monetary costs, energetic costs, and environmental impact-related costs.
The global pollution index GPI represents a method for assessing environment health status or pollution levels. The GPI quantitatively expresses this status based on its index, which results from a ratio between the ideal value and the given value of certain quality indices that are considered specific for the analyzed environmental factors at certain moments. The proposed method in this paper tries to perform a synergistic aggregation of the balance sheet of harmfulness and classic balance sheets for matter and energy for an industrial process.
Organisation of work safety in the mining industry; Sicherheitsorganisation im Bergbau. The paper summarizes the main findings of a scientific study. Accident figures for the German mining industry indicate that, in comparison with other industries, there is still plenty of scope for increased prevention. However, the rapid development of safety technology alone is still yielding diminishing returns. The main route to increased safety in the mining industry is by way of improved safety management.
Various methods are available for analyzing the efficiency of work -safety structures and procedures. Models for the classification of safety-relevant tasks are based on the legally appropriate and organisationally expedient allocation of responsibilities between management and safety experts. An important management tool in this respect is the hazard analysis procedure laid down in the European Union's Health and Safety at Work Act. Practical studies are used to illustrate that safety results can be improved through reorganisation without increasing prime costs.
Die Fortentwicklung der Sicherheitstechnik fuer sich allein liefert aber nur noch abnehmende Grenzertraege. Eine Strategie technischer und organisatorischer Einzeldirektiven reicht ebenfalls nicht aus. Der Weg zu besseren Sicherheitsresultaten im Bergbau fuehrt vor allem ueber optimierte Ablaeufe des Sicherheitsmanagements. Mit verschiedenen Methoden lassen sich Aufbau- und Ablauforganisation der Arbeitssicherheit auf ihre Effizienz untersuchen.
Aus der juristisch implizierten und organisatorisch zweckmaessigen Aufgabenteilung zwischen Fuehrungskraeften und Sicherheitsexperten ergeben sich Zurodnungsmuster fuer sicherheitsrelevante Aufgaben. Ein wichtiges Fuehrungsinstrument sind Gefaehrdungsanalysen nach dem Arbeitsschutzrecht der Europaeischen Union. Indian underground mining UGM transport system largely deals with different fore and back bearing work processes associated with different occupational disorders and fatigue related work stress disorders FRWSDs.
Therefore, this research study is specifically aimed to determine the fatigue related problems in general and determination of Recovery Heart Rate Rec HR pattern and exact cause of FRWSDs in particular. It is observed that with almost same work intensity, the recovery patterns of submaximal prolonged work in mine are different as compared to treadmill.
This research study indicates that non-biomechanical muscle activity along with environmental stressors may have an influence on recovery pattern and FRWSDs. Full Text Available Orientation: The study of work stressors, job insecurity and union support creates opportunity for iron ore mining organisations to manage job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour more effectively.
Motivation for the study: The mining industry in general is often faced with hazardous and physically demanding working environments, where employees work under constant pressure. Work stressors, job insecurity, union support and job satisfaction are considered key variables when investigating effective means of managing safety.
Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was utilised to collect the data. Structural equation modelling and bootstrapping resampling analysis were used to analyse the data. Main findings: Work stressors and job insecurity were found to be negatively associated with job satisfaction. Conversely, perceived union support was positively associated with job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour. The videos highlight that rioters targeted Republicans - whose votes are needed to convict Trump.
Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen on Wednesday warned about an "explosion of risk" from digital markets, including the misuse of cryptocurrencies, but said new financial technologies could also help fight crime and reduce inequality. Mastercard Inc said on Wednesday it was planning to offer support for some cryptocurrencies on its network this year, joining a string of big-ticket firms that have pledged similar support. Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell, citing the country's push after World War Two to find jobs for returning soldiers, on Wednesday called for a broad national effort to get Americans back to work after the pandemic, particularly minorities and workers ousted from lower-paying jobs.
The executors of Jeffrey Epstein's estate were accused on Wednesday of being the "indispensable captains" of the financier's sex trafficking scheme, escalating a legal battle that could delay compensation for Epstein's victims. Prominent women's rights activist Loujain al-Hathloul was released from a Saudi prison after nearly three years behind bars, her family said on Wednesday, a case that has drawn international condemnation.
Reuters provides several ways to securely and confidentially share information and materials with our journalists. Subscribe to our daily curated newsletter to receive the latest exclusive Reuters coverage delivered to your inbox. World Home U. Markets Home U. In chilling video, Democrats focus Trump trial on mob's threat to fellow Republicans. Exclusive: Dozens of former Republican officials in talks to form anti-Trump third party. Taiwan, U. Suu Kyi aide among new wave of arrests in Myanmar as Biden approves sanctions.
Asia stocks pause at peaks, sustained by stimulus promise. Pandemic dampens Lunar New Year celebrations. Japan retailer turns to cuddly toys to boost Lunar New Year sales.
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